During this stage, the more that milk is removed from the breasts, the more the breast will produce milk.This is the mechanism by which milk is transported from the breast alveoli to the nipple.These include feeding in a familiar and comfortable location, massage of the breast or back, or warming the breast with a cloth or shower.Suckling by the baby innervates slowly-adapting mechanoreceptors that are densely packed around the areolar region.In humans the process of feeding milk is also called breastfeeding or nursing.In most species, milk comes out of the mother's nipples; however, the monotremes, egg-laying mammals, lack nipples and release milk through ducts in the abdomen.Stress or anxiety can cause difficulties with breastfeeding.The release of the hormone oxytocin leads to the milk ejection or let-down reflex.
Breastfeeding mothers describe the sensation differently. Some feel a slight tingling, others feel immense amounts of pressure or slight pain/discomfort, and still others do not feel anything different.
At birth, prolactin levels remain high, while the delivery of the placenta results in a sudden drop in progesterone, estrogen, and HPL levels.
This abrupt withdrawal of progesterone in the presence of high prolactin levels stimulates the copious milk production of Secretory Activation.
At this stage, high levels of progesterone inhibit most milk production.
It is not a medical concern if a pregnant woman leaks any colostrum before her baby's birth, nor is it an indication of future milk production.